Amherst, NY (PRWEB) January 6, 2005
Electronic voice phenomena (EVP), the alleged attempts of the dead to contact the living through recorded media, have long been popular with the paranormal crowd. EVP were featured in the 1999 film The Sixth Sense, and serve as a plot hook in the movie White Noise, which premieres in theaters this Friday. But experts at the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) say there’s little evidence to support claims of EVP.
“Serious parapsychologists today show virtually no interest in EVP, and modern reports in the parapsychological literature find no evidence of anything paranormal in such recordings,” says James Alcock, CSICOP Fellow and professor of psychology at York University in Toronto. “That does not deter the devoted; it is claimed that there are more than 50,000 sites on the Web devoted to EVP.”
Proponents claim that electronic voice phenomenon (also known as “Raudive voices,” after Latvian psychologist and EVP researcher Konstantin Raudive) are a type of interference in recorded media, created by the spirits of the dead in order to communicate with the living. EVP are usually produced by making recordings of an empty room, though sometimes participants will pose questions to any spirits that may be present. The recording is played back and analyzed for speech samples – speech samples that weren’t heard during the recording process. Many of the results are indistinct at best; the use of headphones is recommended, and multiple attempts may be required to make out words.
Since the rise of Spiritualism in the nineteenth century, there have been many scientific researchers (including noted inventor Thomas Edison) who dabbled in “spirit communications” while also engaging in scientific study. One such dabbler was Friedrich JÃ¼rgenson (1903-1987): philosopher, archaeologist, linguist, singer, court painter to Pope Pius XII, documentary filmmaker, recording artist-and a pioneer of EVP recording.
After recording birdsongs with a tape recorder, JÃ¼rgenson heard human voices on the tapes, even though there had been no one in the vicinity. He began to study recordings specifically made with no one around. He published two books on the subject, Voices from Space (1964) and Radio-link with the Dead (1967). His work brought him into contact with the Latvian psychologist Dr. Konstantin Raudive (1906-1974). Raudive would spend the last ten years of his life studying EVP, making over 100,000 audiotapes and writing about his findings in the 1971 book Breakthrough.
There are several non-supernatural phenomena, known to “play tricks” on people’s perceptions, which may be responsible for EVPs, Alcock says.
The mechanical phenomena include cross-modulation, where electronic devices accidentally pick up transmissions on other frequencies. Mental phenomena include pareidolia and apophenia, perceptual mechanisms that cause people to see images where none exist (such as Rorschach inkblots) and to think they hear distinct sounds in white noise patterns (like “hearing” the doorbell or the telephone while one is in the shower).
An over-active imagination may also play a role in “finding” EVP. In fact, Raudive comments in Breakthrough that reading Voices from Space left him with “a very definite impression of the author (JÃ¼rgenson) as a highly sensitive and susceptible man. Many of his ideas seemed to me to have been formed by a vivid imagination; the kind that could conjure up pictures in an empty room or voices out of the stillness.”
Alcock explains that EVP can be simulated in a laboratory setting. If the test subject is given an expectation of what they will “hear,” and if the cadence of those words matches the cadence of the white noise, “then the brain will turn those sounds into those – now clearly discernible – words.”
“Given that we can routinely demonstrate this effect, it is only prudent to suggest that what people hear with EVP is also the product of their own brains, and their expectations, rather than the voices of the dearly departed,” Alcock comments.
However, Alcock recognizes that many people who report success with EVPs are “reporting an experience that was highly meaningful and perhaps highly emotional – not something that is easily challenged by logic.” As a matter of fact, Raudive and JÃ¼rgenson both had intensely personal experiences with EVPs: JÃ¼rgenson thought he heard his dead mother calling him by his pet nickname; Raudive thought one of the voices talked about the recent death of a friend.
Hollywood – and audiences – love a good ghost story, but skeptics want to remind the public that films like White Noise and Ghostbusters are still just fiction.
CSICOP is a nonprofit scientific and educational organization, founded in 1976 by Paul Kurtz, Isaac Asimov, Carl Sagan and other prominent academics, scientists and writers. CSICOP encourages the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view.
Konstantīns Raudive (1909, Asūne, Vitebsk Governorate – 1974) was a Latvian writer and intellectual, and husband of Zenta Mauriņa. Raudive was born in Latgale in eastern Latvia (then part of Vitebsk Governorate) but studied extensively abroad, later becoming a student of Carl Jung. In exile following the Soviet re-conquest of Latvia in World War II, he taught at the University of Uppsala in Sweden.
Raudive studied parapsychology all his life, and was especially interested in the possibility of the afterlife. He and German parapsychologist Hans Bender investigated Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP). He published a book on EVP, Breakthrough in 1971. Raudive was a scientist as well as a practising Roman Catholic.
1 EVP research
3 EVP characteristics
6 External links
In 1964, Raudive read Friedrich Jürgenson’s book, Voices from Space, and was so impressed by it that he arranged to meet Jürgenson in 1965. He then worked with Jürgenson to make some EVP recordings, but their first efforts bore little fruit, although they believed that they could hear very weak, muddled voices. According to Raudive, however, one night, as he listened to one recording, he clearly heard a number of voices. When he played the tape over and over, he came to believe he understood all of them. He thought some of which were in German, some in Latvian, some in French. The last voice on the tape, according to Raudive, a woman’s voice, said “Va dormir, Margarete” (“Go to sleep, Margaret”).
Raudive later wrote (in his book Breakthrough):
“These words made a deep impression on me, as Margarete Petrautzki had died recently, and her illness and death had greatly affected me.”
Raudive started researching such alleged voices on his own and spent much of the last ten years of his life exploring EVP. With the help of various electronics experts he recorded over 100,000 audiotapes, most of which were made under what he described as “strict laboratory conditions.” He collaborated at times with Bender. Over 400 people were involved in his research, and all apparently heard the voices. This culminated in the 1968 publication of Unhörbares wird hörbar (“What is inaudible becomes audible”) (published in English in 1971 as Breakthrough).
The best way to understand the development of EVP it is to go back a little in time.
With the rise of Spiritualism beginning with the “mysterious rappings” of the Fox sisters in the nineteenth century, there have been many attempts to “contact the dead,” while claiming to be engaged in scientific study.
Thomas Edison saw new technology, part of which he invented, as a means by which spirits might try to contact us. Apparently, he strove to make contact through some sort of phonograph device in the 1890s. Then, in the late 1920s, he tried to make contact with the souls of the dearly departed by means of some sort of special chemical equipment. It is claimed that spirit voices were first captured on phonograph records in 1938, seven years after his death.
However, it was with Friedrich Jürgenson (1903-1987) that the study of EVP really begins. Jürgenson was in some ways a Renaissance Man — an archeologist, a philosopher, a linguist, a painter who was commissioned by Pope Pius XII, a singer and recording artist, and a film documentary maker. . Jürgenson’s interest in Electronic Voice Phenomena apparently began when, after having recording bird songs with a tape recorder, he could hear human voices on the tapes, even though there had been no one in the vicinity.
This surprising event naturally piqued his interest, and he turned his attention to making recordings of nothing — that is, recordings made in a quite place with no one around. He continued to detect voices on these tapes, and his studies led to the 1964 publication of his book Rosterna fran Rymden (“Voices from space”).
He subsequently recognized some of the voices that his tape recorder picked up, including that of his mother, who called him by her pet nickname for him. However, as we say where I grew up, his mother was already “on the wrong side of the grass;” that is, she was deceased. It seemed natural to him to assume that she was communicating from beyond the grave. Thus, he came to the conclusion that all the voices that he had recorded were voices of the dead. In 1967, he published Sprechfunk mit Verstorbenen (“Radio-link with the dead”).
electronic voice phenomenon (EVP)
Still, a man hears what he wants to hear and disregards the rest.–Paul Simon, “The Boxer”
Satan “can remain hidden, or speak in different languages, transform himself or appear to be agreeable.” –Gabriele Amorth, 85, who has been the Vatican’s chief exorcist for 25 years
Electronic voice phenomenon is the alleged communication by spirits through tape recorders and other electronic devices. The belief in EVP in the United States seems to have mushroomed thanks to Sarah Estep, president of the American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomena, which claims to have members in some 40 states and publishes a newsletter. Estep claims that in the 1970s she started picking up voices on her husband’s Teac reel-to-reel recorder. She is sure that the voices are spirits, proving there is life after death. Estep also claims to hear voices of aliens on some of her tapes. She says she has taped some 20,000 ghosts and aliens. Aliens don’t speak English, however, so she is not sure what they are saying. Maybe she was picking up Satan speaking in tongues.